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     The Chinese Journal of Radio Science, started from 1986, is an academic peer-reviewed journal issued both in China and abroad, and is listed in the Chinese Core Journals. It is selected by Chinese Science Citation Database(CSCD), Chinese Scientific and Technological Paper and Citation Database (CSTPCD), China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Chinese Science Abstracts Database(CSAD), JST China and SCOPUS.
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2019 Vol. 34, No. 5   Published: 30 October 2019
Numerical simulation of ionospheric propagation loss at HF based on parabolic equation
WANG Hongguang, ZHANG Lijun, SUN Fang, LI Jianru, XU Bin
2019, 34(5): 545-551  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018052201 
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The calculations of ionosphere propagation loss have important meaning for fundamental research of ionosphere and applications of HF communication or over-the-horizon radar, which are usually adopted by semi-empirical model. The parabolic equation methods for electromagnetic wave propagation are proposed to numerically calculate the space distribution of path loss affected by ionosphere at HF. The numerical techniques can consider effects of refraction, reflection, diffraction and absorption of ionospheric propagation simultaneously. Propagation loss is simulated under different frequency and beam width using a profile of electron concentration. The propagation mode, reflection height and situation are compared with the results from ray tracing, demonstrating that they are consistent with each other. Absorption effects for ionosphere are simulated and used to analyze by the numerical method. The study preliminarily shows the validity of the powerful numerical techniques of parabolic equation methods for assessing ionospheric propagation.
Wide-angle scanning circularly polarized phased array antenna
JIANG Xing, SHEN Xiang, PENG Lin, LI Xiaofeng
2019, 34(5): 552-557  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018121401 
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A wide-beam circularly polarized antenna unit and a 1×4 antenna array are designed to realize one-dimensional wide-angle circular polarization scanning in this paper. Antenna unit consists of a single layer radiating patch and a dielectric substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) back cavity. The right-handed circular polarization is achieved by chamfering and cutting the U-groove on the radiating patch, andbroaden the beam is utilized by the SIW back cavity gap. At the same time, the SIW back cavity is used to reduce the mutual coupling between the array elements to realize wide-angle circular polarization scanning. A circular polarization scan characteristic that achieves a good wide angle range. The simulation and test results show that the antenna array has a scan angle from -53° to 57°, 3 dB beam width coverage from -76° to 79°, an axial ratio (AR) of less than 3 dB in the main beam scan range, and a smooth gain variation over the scan range. A circular polarization scan characteristic that achieves a good wide angle range.
Analysis of sea clutter distribution with L-band airborne radar
LEI Zhiyong, HUANG Zhongping, WU Gang, ZHANG Liang
2019, 34(5): 558-566  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018101501 
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Airborne radar detects ship target mainly in sea clutter, and the detection performance is greatly bounded by sea clutter distribution property. This paper analyzes properties of L-band airborne radar echoes and especially those of sea clutter, and then presents pre-processing scheme of sea clutter from the view of ship detection. Classical distribution models namely Rayleigh, Weibull, Lognormal and compound K distribution, are verified with real radar data, which shows that the Lognormal distribution is the best. Therefore, the above preprocessing method and conclusion are meaningful in designing radar detector in practice.
Design of a wide-band multi-mode horn
ZHANG Yu, QU Fangfang
2019, 34(5): 567-573  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018102301 
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In this paper, the theory of mode-matching technique(MMT) and optimization algorithm are used to develop a triple frequency multi-mode horn for the 110-meter antenna of Xinjiang Observatory with a working band of 4-12 GHz. This horn is composed of 225 circular waveguide steps, which is easy to manufacture. Compared with traditional multi-mode horn and corrugated horn, it has a prominent advantage of equating radiation pattern in ultra wide band. This horn is suitable for high efficiency feed for ultra wide band radio astronomy observation antenna or for other antenna designed for ultra wide band.
Far field electromagnetic side channel attack based on advanced encryption standard
KONG Fantong, GUO Chengjun, TIAN Zhong
2019, 34(5): 574-581  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2019022302 
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Electromagnetic side channel attack is an effective method in side channel attack. In order to overcome the limitations of traditional electromagnetic side channel attacks that must be acquired at close distance, a far field attack method based on correlation analysis is proposed for cryptographic devices without electromagnetic protection. The microcontroller running the advanced encryption standard(AES) and the antenna detecting the signal in the far field were used in our experiment. Before perform the side channel attack, we take the average value and filter the collected signal to reduce the influence of noise. Successfully we crack all 16-byte keys at 10 m. At the same time, the frequency and sample size of the far field electromagnetic side channel attack are deeply studied. In fact, the electromagnetic side channel with key information mainly concentrates in a frequency range, and the the key information is more obvious with the increase of sample size. Based on this, an improved electromagnetic side channel attack method is proposed combining with the mechanism of key information leakage generated by cryptographic chips.
Miniaturized dual band antenna for LoRa wearable devices
YU Zhong, CHAO Meijing, QIN Ting, ZHANG Gaoji, SHEN Yaoxu
2019, 34(5): 582-589  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018062201 
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A miniaturized dual-band antenna suitable for LoRa wearable devices is proposed. The antenna is composed of a substrate with a radius of 18 mm and above the 6 mm high ring bracket. A clockwise surround monopole and coupling branches are adopted to generate two low-frequency resonant modes on a certain miniaturized structure, which can meet the LoRa antenna performance requirements. The antenna achieves -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 476-502 MHz and 854-879 MHz, and can cover most of the working frequency bands of LoRa devices at 470-510 MHz and 863-868 MHz. The measured efficiency at the two operating frequency points of 490 MHz and 865 MHz is 15.56% and 27.91% respectively. The antenna has a simple structure, a wide coverage frequency, a small volume, and a good radiation performance in the working frequency bands, and has a certain engineering application value.
A method of measuring atmospheric turbulence parameter based on very short baseline CEI
SUN Fang, LIU Zejun, ZHOU Yufeng, DU Lan, WANG Hong, ZHU Qinglin
2019, 34(5): 590-596  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018060201 
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At present, work performance of the high frequency deep space TT&C system is badly affected by the random change of phase error arose by troposphere atmospheric turbulence. For the purpose of quantifying turbulence intensity, based on the very short baseline CEI receiving GEO satellite signal, the standard deviation of interferometer phase are statisticed, using classical Kolmogorov-Obukhov "2/3" turbulence theory and random field theory, and a method of atmospheric turbulence parameter is proposed to obtain atmospheric refractive index structure constant which can symbolize turbulence intensity. The phase observation experimentations were carried through in Zhengzhou and Hangzhou for a few sunshine days and rainy days, and the atmospheric refractive index structure constants were computed by experimentation data, and compared with the results of experience model using radiosonde data. The results show that Cn2 are much larger at noon than in morning and evening on sunshine days, and have no distinct law on rainy days,and are changed between 10-15 and 10-13, which is consistent with the results calculated by experience model to validate the rationality and accuracy of this method.
A background-separating method on the HF fixed-frequency clutter map
TIAN Deyuan, HUANG Xiaojing, LI Xue, WANG Shikai, YANG Longquan, HUA Caicheng
2019, 34(5): 597-602  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018060801 
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Aiming at the detection problem of HF fixed-frequency channel detection clutter background, a threshold extraction method based Rayleigh distribution map is proposed, and according to the multi-level threshold extraction result and the binary image mark and image expansion filling method based on run-length code, the background energy level profile of HF fixed frequency channel clutter is given, which provides support for subsequent detection research. The research shows that this method can give an ideal clutter background contour in the clutter in the clutter background segmentation of multiple HF fixed-frequency channel detection, which has a certain guiding effect on the subsequent sea clutter extraction and correlation detection.
Auto correlation function calculation study of Barker code and alternative code on the incoherent scattering radar
DAI Liandong, DING Zonghua, YANG Song, TANG Zhimei, XU Zhengwen
2019, 34(5): 603-609  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018062102 
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Incoherent scattering radar use complicated data process, among which the calculation of auto correlation function (ACF) is very important, to achieve many high precision ionospheric parameters. We deduce the formula that includes ACF with ambiguity function, and emulate 13 bits barker code, integer and fraction of 16 bits alternating code (AC). We achieve two results. The first is for barker code:barker code only use lag0 to calculate ACF. The second is for AC code:fraction way has more delay points than integer way, so fraction way calculates ACF more precise with wide power spectrum. This is important for improving ionosphereic detection and studying ionosphere.
RCS simulation technology for near space hypersonic target
WU Wei, LIU Fang, ZHONG Jianlin, WANG Guohong
2019, 34(5): 610-621  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2019010601 
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In order to solve the problem of radar cross section(RCS) simulation in the simulation test of radar detection of hypersonic target in near space, a target RCS reduction simulation method suitable for near space hypersonic vehicle under plasma sheath is proposed. Firstly, based on the relevant data of plasma frequency and electron collision frequency corresponding to different altitude and velocity, the relationship table of plasma frequency and electron collision frequency corresponding to different velocity and altitude was fitted. Secondly, the plasma frequency and electronic collision frequency corresponding to different target altitude and velocity are obtained by real-time table lookup under given radar frequency. The target plasma coating model and electromagnetic wave transmission model are established, and the attenuation coefficient and reflection coefficient of radar electromagnetic wave are calculated. Finally, the RCS reduction of target can be simulated by the attenuation coefficient and reflection coefficient of radar electromagnetic wave. By comparing with the concerned real data, the rationality of the method is proved. The simulation analysis shows that it is easier to obtain continuous tracks and shorter time to generate radar "black-out" by using high-frequency radar to detect near space hypersonic vehicle.
Experimental study on fading characteristics in the evaporation duct propagation at C band
GUO Xiangming, LIU Yongsheng, ZHAO Dongliang, LIN Leke, KANG Shifeng
2019, 34(5): 622-627  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018081901 
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The evaporation duct is an important anomalous transhorizon propagation mechanism in marine areas. It has important effects on the design and operation of marine radio system. Based on the experimental data of C-band microwave transhorizon propagation in evaporation duct environment in the South China Sea, the characteristics of path loss and fast signal fading distribution at different propagation distances are compared and analyzed. The experimental results show that with the increase of propagation distance, the propagation loss gradually approaches the tropospheric scattering propagation loss, and the main propagation mechanism gradually transits from evaporation duct to tropospheric scattering. The fast fading distribution of the received signal level sampled in 5 minutes is close to the generalized Rayleigh distribution, and the fading depth and amplitude are smaller than the Rayleigh distribution. The results are valuable for the design of over-the-horizon communication system using evaporation duct.
Beam scanning characteristics of side-feed offset cassegrain antenna
YU Xujing, LI Jianying, ZHANG Xingang
2019, 34(5): 628-632  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018112901 
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A side-feed offset Cassegrain (SFOC) antenna is studied. The influence of structural parameters on the radiation pattern of the antenna is discussed. The optimal beam scanning of the antenna is achieved by adjusting the antenna design parameters. The radiation pattern of the antenna at different scanning angles is calculated. The changes of the sidelobe level and antenna gain during beam scanning are analyzed. The simulation result shows that except for the case where the feed is blocked by the reflector, the gain loss and the sidelobe level variation of the SFOC antenna are small, which provides a reference for the design of the satellite antenna.
The climatological analysis of the lower atmospheric ducts in South China Sea
WANG Haibin, ZHANG Lijun, WANG Hongguang
2019, 34(5): 633-642  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2019010701 
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Based on the Global Telecommunication System(GTS) data from 2014 to 2016, a statistical analysis from eight radiosonde stations data near South China Sea(SCS)is given in this paper. We obtained the annual duct parameters and probability distribution characteristics of the lower atmospheric ducts. Annual statistics show that the probability of surface duct occurrence in the South China Sea is about 20%, and most surface duct heights are below 100 m and the duct intensity is smaller than 10 M. The probability of elevated duct occurrence is about 50%. The parameters of top height, bottom height and bottom height of elevated duct are generally between 1 000 and 2 500 m, and the intensity is 4 M-15 M. The spatial distribution of atmospheric duct is high in the middle part and low in the north and south part, which is related to the inter tropical convergence zone(ITCZ). Monthly statistics show that there are obvious monthly variations in the northern and central South China Sea, which closely relates to the South China Sea monsoon, while the variations are not obvious in the southern South China Sea area (the area near the equator). These statistical analysis results can serve as a reference for radar and communication system working or operating in this sea area.
Ionospheric storm-time LSTID characteristics using multi-resolution GPS tomography
YIN Ping, LI Bo, REN Dandan
2019, 34(5): 643-654  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018111602 
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The use of GPS ionospheric tomography to detect the ionosphere has been developed for decades, particularly during the period of ionospheric storms. In this paper, a multi-resolution tomographic algorithm based on GPS data is proposed to reconstruct the ionosphere over the eastern and western USA on March 16-17, 2015. First, the accuracy of inversions using the multi-resolution tomographic algorithm is analyzed by comparing with independent ionosonde data. It is confirmed the feasibility of the multi-resolution tomographic algorithm during the magnetic storm period. Secondly, the occurrence of a large-scale travelling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID) caused by the ionospheric storm is verified from the reconstructed ionospheric images in the eastern USA on March 17, 2015. The horizontal characteristic ofthis LSTID is also discussed with inverted TEC estimates. Finally, the vertical feature of the LSTID is studied by comparing the inverted electron density profile and the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) scan. The results show that the wavelength of LSTID is about 1 200 km, the period is 50-60 min, and it propagates to the southwest direction at a wave speed of 350-400 m/s, and the accuracy of the vertical electron density of the TID is reliable.
A study of amplitude scintillation based on COSMIC occultation data during 2007-2013
2019, 34(5): 655-662  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018102401 
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Based on the COSMIC (constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere and climate) GPS occultation data from 2007 to 2013, the characteristics of ionospheric scintillation in E and F regions are analyzed. It is found that the variations of ionospheric scintillation characterized by its frequency, occurrence or intensity are quite similar. Ionospheric scintillation in E region is the strongest in mid-latitudes of summer hemisphere, followed by that in low latitudes in equinox and winter hemisphere. The longitudinal variation of ionospheric scintillation in E-region presents a four-wave structure in equinox. The ionospheric scintillation in F region is strongest in South American-Atlantic sector in December solstice, in African and Pacific sector in June solstice and in Atlantic sector in equinox. The polar region has a weak contribution to the global ionospheric scintillation, mainly from the 90°E-180°E sector. The intensity of ionospheric scintillation in E region increases with solar activities in high latitudes, but decreases in mid-latitude in southern hemisphere and low latitudes. The intensity of ionospheric scintillation in F region increases with solar activities in both high and low latitudes, with no significant trends in mid-latitudes. In low latitudes, the 60°W-60°E longitude in northern hemisphere has the most sensitive scintillation effects caused by solar activities, followed by the 60°E-210°E longitude in southern hemisphere. In high latitudes, the 60°E-210°E longitude in southern hemisphere has the most sensitive scintillation effects caused by solar activities.
    General Information
Journal Title:
Chinese Journal of Radio Science
Administered by:
China Association for Science and Technology(CAST)
Edited and published by:
China Institute of Electronics(CIE)
Language: Chinese
Frequency of publication: bimonthly
Format: Large 16K
CN: 41-1185/TN
ISSN: 1005-0388
Code: 453000
Tel: 0373-3712411
Fax: 0373-3052232
No.84 Jianshe East Rd.,Muye District,Xinxiang,Henan
Website: www.cjors.cn
E-mail: dbkxxb@crirp.ac.cn
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