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     The Chinese Journal of Radio Science, started from 1986, is an academic peer-reviewed journal issued both in China and abroad, and is listed in the Chinese Core Journals. It is selected by Chinese Science Citation Database(CSCD), Chinese Scientific and Technological Paper and Citation Database (CSTPCD), China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Chinese Science Abstracts Database(CSAD), JST China and SCOPUS.
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2019 Vol. 34, No. 3   Published: 30 June 2019
Secondary electrostatic discharge simulation and experimental research
WANG Jian, WAN Fayu, WANG Xiangwei, JI Qizheng
2019, 34(3): 257-263  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018091401 
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Secondary electrostatic discharge(SESD) is an electrostatic discharge phenomenon that occurs between tiny gaps in an electronic device and has a peak current of several tens of amperes, which can cause fatal damage to many components such as transistors. The circuit-level simulation model composed of electrostatic discharge (ESD) simulation circuit, secondary discharge simulation circuit and current target circuit is used to study the secondary discharge process and parameter such as discharge waveform. The waveform of the secondary electrostatic discharge is initially explored and compared with the initial model to verify the known theory. Secondly, based on the methods of experimental research and data analysis, the characteristics, peak characteristics and time delay characteristics of the secondary discharge waveform are summarized. It is found that the peak current of the secondary discharge is larger than the first discharge current, and the time delay of the secondary discharge is normally distributed. The results of this study are consistent with and validated the current theories of microscopic process in SESD.
Reduced model and its application of nonlinear loads
ZHANG Qi, SHI Lihua, XU Bing, ZHOU Jun, LIU Bin, GAO Rongjun, ZHAO Jun
2019, 34(3): 264-271  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018101701 
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For the realization of the large-scale complex networks electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling analysis, the reduced modeling method of nonlinear loads is proposed, in view of the typical nonlinear load efficiency and convergence. The nonlinear polynomial relationship is replaced by the controlled voltage source; the response time of nonlinear loads is specified. Some parameters such as temperature are ignored, and the number of model components is reduced. The reduced SPICE model of gas discharge tube (GDT) and metal oxide varistors (MOV) are established. With EMP excitation of three types, the transmission line ended by the two nonlinear loads is analyzed for the convergence and the simulation efficiency. The results show that the MOV model and the GDT model can reach well converge. Computational efficiency of the MOV model is improved by 30%. The GDT model completely avoids using the ideal switch components, so slight efficiency degradation is acceptable. These modeling methods have strong universality and can be transplanted to other nonlinear load modeling. It improves the reduced calculation model of cable coupling, and is of great practical significance for improving the EMC design and evaluation efficiency of super-large systems.
Multi-functional wireless video monitoring system based on aesthetic antenna
ZHAO Weilong, LIU Haiwen, ZHAO Zhenyu, SONG Yi, WEN Pin
2019, 34(3): 272-277  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018082502 
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A wireless video monitoring system based on multi-functional aesthetic antenna is designed and implemented for the demand of multi-functional video monitoring system. The multi-functional resonator antenna is mainly composed of K9 glass, LED and substrate. K9 glass is used as radiator, LED is used as light source to integrate illumination function, and substrate is used as a platform to excite glass resonator. The antenna design works in 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi band, and the 3-D moon pattern in the glass block is realized by laser carving technology, which integrates decorative effect. Based on the designed multi-functional resonator antenna, the embedded processor Hi3516A is used to realize the acquisition, correction, processing and compression of 5 megapixel video, and the 2.4 GHz wireless video is successfully completed. The final production test proves the feasibility of the design, and provides a new alternative for hiding video surveillance equipment.
Direct synthesis of low sidelobe arbitrary beam
ZHENG Zhanqi, ZHANG Lijun, WANG Yuhao, ZHANG Xiaobin, WANG Guanying, ZHANG Jianming
2019, 34(3): 278-286  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018100401 
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In traditional beam-forming design of array antenna, the synthetic pattern of array antenna is obtained by weighting the radiation pattern of array element antenna with amplitude and phase. Usually, the weight of the amplitude and phase of the array element excitation depends on the comparison between the target pattern and the array synthesis pattern by the optimization algorithm. Because the algorithm is usually based on pattern-related array pattern, and the algorithm lacks side-lobe suppression mechanism, the pattern synthesis efficiency is not high and the side-lobe effect is usually unsatisfactory. In this paper, a direct synthesis algorithm of arbitrary beams is designed. First, a set of independent high gain narrow beams (free radical beams) is obtained based on the array element pattern, and then the direct synthesis of the beam pattern is carried out based on this beam. The problem of beamforming is unified, which avoids the random optimization of unknown parameters and greatly improves the efficiency of beamforming design of array antenna. Meanwhile, the sidelobe suppression mechanism is combined with the free Radix design, and the sidelobe suppression mechanism is independent from the beamforming process, so that the sidelobe of synthetic beams is natural, and it has the characteristics of low sidelobe.
Miniaturized super low frequency transmitting antenna based on the three-phase induction motor
XU Yunxiao, GENG Junping, ZHAO Xiaonan, ZHUANG Kaijie, WANG Kun, WU Haobo, HAN Jiawei, SHEN Jingshi, JIN Ronghong, LIANG Xianling, ZHU Weiren
2019, 34(3): 287-294  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018092201 
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In this paper, a miniaturized super low frequency (SLF) transmitting antenna is proposed based on three-phase induction motor, in order to cope with the oversized antenna issue in low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) transmission.Equivalent time-varying low frequency electromagnetic fields can be generated by the working motor, which can be used as a transmitting antenna. For the sake of electromagnetic field analysis, rotating magnetic field inside the motor can be regarded as a model of rotating magnetic dipole. Firstly, this paper describes the relationship between the magnetic field of the motor and the rotating magnetic dipole, and the electromagnetic field distribution of the rotating magnetic dipole is obtained by Maxwell's equations. Secondly, its near field and far field characteristics are proved by electromagnetic simulation. Finally, the electromagnetic field distribution of the motor is verified through experiments. The results show that the three-phase induction motor has the radiation characteristics of the low frequency antenna.
Applicability of ITU-R P.1546 recommendation in typical terrestrial areas of CHINA
YANG Cheng, WANG Jian, YOU Xihua, SU Haibin, JI Shengyun, ZHAO Zhenwei
2019, 34(3): 295-301  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018020801 
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Based on the analysis of the ITU-R P.1546 recommendation, this paper compares the prediction results with the test results in the surrounding plain area of Beijing and Karst mountain area in Guizhou, and we analyzed the applicability of this method in two typical terrestrial areas of China. The results show that:(1) The terrain shows good adaptability at both 3 s and 30 s accuracy, and increasing the elevation accuracy can reduce the prediction error. (2) The prediction result of remote mountainous regions is only good at 3 s terrain accuracy. Coarse-grained elevation data can have a significant impact on the equivalent height of transmit antenna, as well as the field strength interpolation and the terrain clearance angle correction, and the average value of terrain clearance angle correction under 3 s and 30 s Terrain difference is 30.85 dB. The research results are of significance to for the regional application and localization research of the propagation prediction methods provided by ITU-R Recommendations.
Improving the accuracy of equivalence principle algorithm with mixed discretization scheme
LIANG Jianan, SHAO Hanru, WANG Lili
2019, 34(3): 302-308  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018081202 
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For the poor precision problem of identity operator using conventional numerical discretization in equivalent principle algorithm (EPA), a mixed discretization scheme is proposed to improve the accuracy in this paper. In the mixed discretization scheme, the electric currents on equivalence surfaces are expanded by Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis functions and magnetic currents are expanded by Buffa-Christiansen (BC) basis functions. Then the testing functions are n×BC and n×RWG respectively, which means that identity operators are tested on the dual of their range. The multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is also used to accelerate the matrix-vector multiplication in EPA. Finally, numerical results are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed technique.
MUF prediction method based on multi-sounding data system detection data fusion
JI Shengyun, JIA Wenke, WANG Jian, SU Haibin, GE Yunlu, FU Wei, YANG Cheng, ZHANG Xiuqiang, SUN Xiuzhi, HAN Feng
2019, 34(3): 309-314  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018020601 
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A maximum usable frequency(MUF) prediction method based on data fusion is proposed. The method integrates the ionospheric vertical and oblique sounding system data fusion to detect data from multi-sounding system, to predict the maximum usable frequency of shortwave communication, experimental results show that the method can effectively improve the accuracy of MUF prediction, relative prediction error is reduced by 19.23%, reduce the absolute error of 0.33 MHz. Compared with the experimental results, the prediction accuracy in spring and autumn and winter is especially obvious, with an average of over 25% and over 10% in summer. This method is easy for engineering implementation, and can provide accurate data support for shortwave communication frequency selection and short wave broadcast coverage analysis.
Retrieving method of multi ocean wave parameters based on GNSS-R technique
WANG Bo, YAN Xingkui, XU Yuzhe, ZHANG Keke, LIU Shixuan, CHEN Shizhe
2019, 34(3): 315-321  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018101201 
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Aiming at the limitation that GNSS-R technique only estimates significant wave height using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflections, a mapping model of ocean surface coherence time and significant wave height and mean wave period is established in this paper, which is based on interferometric complex field (ICF) defined by direct and reflected signals. The processing flow and method of reflection signals assisted with Doppler shift, C/A code and navigation data bits of direct signals are also given in detail. The model and algorithms of retrieving wave direction and wave period using reflections is researched, and then the multi-parameter retrieving model and algorithm is established. Finally, an experiment campaign is carried out to validate the results, the location of which is Xiaomaidao ocean observation station, Qingdao. The experiment results prove that the root-mean-square errors of significant wave height and mean wave period are 0.1 m and 0.61 s, respectively. The research results of this project would have significant academic value and important strategic significance for new technology research and new equipment manufacture of ocean monitoring, the applications to Beidou Navigation Satellite System and other application fields.
Three-dimensional ionospheric electron density reconstruction by data ingestion of ground-based GNSS and COSMIC occultation measurements
OU Ming, XIONG Wen, LIU Yiwen, ZHEN Weimin
2019, 34(3): 322-329  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018042201 
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Accurate determination of the ionospheric real-time state plays an important role in radiowave information systems such as modern communication and satellite navigation system. To provide three-dimensional(3D) specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, a new 3D ionospheric electron density reconstruction method is developed by data ingestion of ground-based global navigation satellite system(GNSS) and constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere and climate(COSMIC) occultation measurements. Based on the latest International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2016), IG index and Rz index of IRI-2016 are selected as the driving parameter. With Brent algorithm, optimal IG and RZ indices are obtained in two steps by data ingestion of ground GNSS and COSMIC occultation measurements. The comparison between reconstructed results and data of eight ionosonode stations in the European region indicates that the absolute mean error and standard deviation of the reconstructed ionospheric NmF2 were decreased by 33% and 29% respectively, while the reconstruction error of the ionospheric hmF2 decreased by about 55% and 30% respectively. Comparison results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Transmission and coupling characteristics of leaky coaxial cable using the equivalent circuit
LIANG Chen, LI Jianjie, WANG Ning, YU Huijie, LIU Yuan
2019, 34(3): 330-335  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018051503 
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We studied the electrical characteristics of the buried leaky coaxial cables(LCX) as a distributed sensor, applying to detect the intrusion signal and the landslides early warning signal in tunnel and railway, etc. Taking the vertical slot structure as an example, we set up a LCX model using HFSS, and then analyzed the theory and extracted the equivalent circuit model. Based on the equivalent model, we analyzed the transmission, reflection and coupling characteristics of the leaky coaxial cable; we also calculated the equivalent parameters and the coupling parameters using the ABCD matrix. The theoretical calculation is very consistent with the full-wave simulation, which proves the equivalent circuit is right. Results show that compared with the HFSS simulation, the equivalent circuit occupies less computing resources and greatly decreases the simulation time, which will solve the problem that the HFSS simulation cable length is limited and time-consuming; we also theoretically calculate the equivalent parameters and the coupling parameters between the LCXs, which show the coupling capability between the LCX directly.
Response of ionospheric scintillation of Haikou station to geomagnetic storms based on multi-technique observations
YU Houfang, YU Xiao, ZHEN Weimin
2019, 34(3): 336-346  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018091701 
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The response of ionospheric scintillation to 3 geomagnetic storms in year 2004 are analyzed by using plasma density in-situ observations onboard CHAMP satellite and GPS ionospheric scintillation monitor (ISM) at Haikou. It is found that the characteristics of the ionosphere are quite different. In terms of Bz component and Dst observation, the strength of geomagnetic storm in November is the strongest, followed by it in January, and the geomagnetic storm in February is the weakest. However, the observations from the ISM show that, the L-band ionosphere scintillation is strongest during the January geomagnetic storm, the peak S4 value and peak scintillation occurrence is close to 1.0 and 80%, respectively. The duration of ionospheric scintillation is the longest during the February geomagnetic storm, with the peak S4 value and scintillation occurrence close to 1.0 and 63%, respectively. During the main phase and recovery phase of the November magnetic storm, there is no ionospheric scintillation. The observation derived from CHAMP satellite is in consistent with that from ISM. The results show that the large scale ionospheric irregularities tend to appear when the small scale irregularities are present, but the small scale ionospheric irregularities usually disappear first. We conclude that the differences in the response of ionospheric are mainly related to the effect of ring current, which could be well explained by Aarons' criterion. The neutral wind may also have contributions to these differences.
A magnetic field measurement technology of high altitude electromagnetic pulse
WANG Wei, ZHU Zhizhen, NIE Xin, YANG Jing, SHI Yuewu, WANG Jinjin
2019, 34(3): 347-354  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018090301 
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For the high altitude electromagnetic pulse testing research purpose, the measuring principle and frequency characteristic of electrically small loops are analyzed in this paper. A numerical model of electrically small loop is founded, and the pulse receiving characteristics are obtained by simulation. Then, the B-dot sensor is designed, and a pulsed magnetic field measuring system is constructed. The results show that the sensor's upper cut-off frequency exceeds 720 MHz when the ring radius is less than 20 mm, and the system calibrated risetime is less than 1 ns. The measuring system is used to measure the magnetic field generated by a HEMP simulator. It shows that the system can measure pulsed magnetic field with fast risetime, and it can also be applied to measure other pulsed magnetic field with high magnitude.
Experimental study of computer effect under the action of low-frequency pulsed magnetic field
PAN Zheng, SHI Lihua, LI Yuebo, ZHENG Ying, XIONG Jiuliang, HUANG Liuhong
2019, 34(3): 355-362  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018091102 
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The low-frequency pulsed magnetic field is a common source of electromagnetic interference, which can be generated in various activities, such as lightning discharge, ground nuclear explosion and production and life. It has multiple characteristics, such as low frequency, low resistance and time variation, so it can be applied to computer systems through direct penetration and magnetoelectric induction, and creates interference or damage. In order to determine the effect law of low-frequency pulsed magnetic field on computer system, the effect experiment of low-frequency pulsed magnetic field on the Lenovo brand computers (2 desktop models and 1 notebook model) were carried with solenoid pulsed magnetic field simulation device, among which, the pulsed magnetic field rise time is between several and hundreds of microseconds, and the maximum magnetic induction intensity is about 70 mT. Through the work, the disturbance threshold and effect law are obtained, the relationship between effect phenomenon and characteristic parameters of magnetic field is analyzed, and the results are in accordance with the theoretical expectation and the logical relationship of the existing results. It can provide reference and basis for the protection of low-frequency pulsed magnetic field in computer systems and similar equipments.
Tapered slot antenna array for mid-frequency aperture array of the Square Kilometer Array
CAO Rui, LU Baojun, GUO Xiaoxiao, SANG Lei
2019, 34(3): 363-370  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018111903 
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A dual-polarized ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna for a square kilometer Intermediate frequency aperture array is designed. The antenna adopts a pentagon resonator instead of the square cavity of the conventional tapered slot antenna, and expands the low-frequency working bandwidth without occupying the active circuit area. The antenna adopts a pentagon resonator instead of the square cavity of the conventional tapered slot antenna, and expands the low-frequency working bandwidth without occupying the active circuit area. The radiant panel and the feed balun are separated designed, thus, the size of the dielectric plate can be greatly reduced to save processing cost, and the electrical performance of the antenna can be maintained. The antenna is processed into a cross-shaped structure to achieve good current continuity in the array elements and not deteriorate the polarization performance of the antenna. The simulation results show that the antenna can scan in the bandwidth of 0.25-1.57 GHz and has better polarization characteristics in the whole working frequency band. Therefore, the design of antenna can fulfill the requirements of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) in the ultra-wideband intermediate frequency,low cost, large scan angle and high polarization isolation.
Application of the hybrid butterfly mating optimization for mutual coupling suppression of tightly-coupled VLF vertical arrays
LI Bin, LIU Chao, DONG Yinghui, ZHANG Bo
2019, 34(3): 371-379  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018092501 
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A novel method of mutual coupling suppression is proposed for mutual coupling suppression of array antennas. The proposed method is based on hybrid butterfly mating optimization(BMO). Firstly, a nonlinear optimization model is established. The optimization variables are grouped and sorted. Binary BMO (BBMO) algorithm is used to optimize the sparse of the model feeders. Then, in order to balance global search and local optimization, butterflies in standard BMO algorithm are empowered by the even chaos initialization and adaptive movement mechanism. The structure of the antenna is further optimized. The proposed method is employed to the model of the tightly two-element umbrella arrays. Results show that this method can improve the radiation resistance of phased array elements. The array gains are close to the theoretical optimum. The beam forming performance of the array antenna is improved effectively. This method provides a novel idea for mutual coupling suppression of large array antennas.
Research and realization of 2.4 GHz wideband circularly polarized microstrip antennas
YAN Dong, DU Peixun, WANG Ping, CHEN Junyu, DONG Teng
2019, 34(3): 380-389  DOI:10.13443/j.cjors.2018072001 
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Aiming at the current status that the existing circularly polarized microstrip antenna has defects such as narrow effective bandwidth and large size, a wideband circularly polarized microstrip antenna for 2.4 GHz wireless sensor network is designed. The model of the antenna is established by Ansoft HFSS, and the main structural parameters of the antenna are simulated and analyzed. Finally, the optimal structural parameters of the antenna are derived. Under the optimal structural parameters, the simulation results show that the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna reaches 63.5%, the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth reaches 17.5%. At the same time, a vector network analyzer is also used to test the return loss of the antenna, and the test results were consistent with the simulation results. Finally, the designed antenna is loaded onto the CY2420 communication node for communication performance test. The test results show that the average packet loss rate at 150 m of the node is 0.36%, and it is almost the same in any direction. The test results show that the antenna has good circular polarization characteristics and is practical.
    General Information
Journal Title:
Chinese Journal of Radio Science
Administered by:
China Association for Science and Technology(CAST)
Edited and published by:
China Institute of Electronics(CIE)
Language: Chinese
Frequency of publication: bimonthly
Format: Large 16K
CN: 41-1185/TN
ISSN: 1005-0388
Code: 453000
Tel: 0373-3712411
Fax: 0373-3052232
No.84 Jianshe East Rd.,Muye District,Xinxiang,Henan
Website: www.cjors.cn
E-mail: dbkxxb@crirp.ac.cn
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